I was called to the Bar by the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple in November 1988. I am no longer in practice.

I am a recognised authority on electronic signatures and digital evidence. (A list of publications and speaking (teaching electronic evidence to judges, lawyers and students, academic lectures and conferences) are in separate downloadable files).

I participated in the Canada-UK 2018 Colloquium Artificial Intelligence & Society: Choices, Risks & Opportunities (Toronto, 23-25 November 2018), and the Report is now available.

Nicholas Bohm and I have prepared a response to the consultation by the Law Commission on Making a Will. We have also written an article on electronic signatures and reliance. We are members of the Law Commission Advisory Board for their project on the electronic execution of documents.

BEWARE paragraph 7.3 bullet point three of the Explanatory Memorandum to the Electronic Identification and Trust Services for Electronic Transactions (Amendment etc.) (EU Exit) Regulations 2018, which states that a qualified signature ‘is considered to be sufficiently secure to withstand repudiation in a court of law’. No evidence is provided to support the assertion that it is considered to be sufficiently secure to withstand repudiation in a court of law. This appears to be a simple blunder, for which see 14.58 – 14.68, 15.15 – 15.19, and 16.14 – 16.26 of Electronic Signatures in Law (link to free download above).

I am a Visiting Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Tartu, Estonia.

I am an Associate Research Fellow at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies in London.

I established the Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review in 2004. It is the leading journal on the topic for judges, lawyers and scholars across the globe, and is now an open source journal.

In 2016, I published a Draft Convention on Electronic Evidence.

I organized, in cooperation with MIS Training Institute, the first International conference on digital evidence held at the Vintners’ Hall, London 26 and 27 June 2008. The papers were published in the 2008 issue of the Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review.


I have revised my Draft Regulation on Friday Afternoon Presents by extending the jurisdiction, given the events in the UK in 2016.